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Citation Tools: APA

Citation Tools & Managers

General Rules

Authors

One author: Last Name, A.A.

Two authors: Last Name, A.A., & Last Name, B.B.

Three to Seven authors: Last Name, A.A., Last Name, B.B., Last Name, C.C., Last Name, D.D., Last Name, E.E., Last Name, F.F., & Last Name, G.G.

Eight or more authors (list first six, add a three dot ellipse, then the last author): Last Name, A.A., Last Name, B.B., Last Name, C.C., Last Name, D.D., Last Name, E.E., Last Name, F.F.,...Last Name, Z.Z.

No author: Move the title to the author space.

Two or more works by same author: Use author's name for all entries and list entries by year - earliest year first. If they were all published in the same year, alphabetically by title, assigning a suffix of a, b, c, d etc. after the year (e.g. 2011a, 2011b)

A group or corporate author: Spell the name out.

In Text Citations

  • You MUST give credit when you quote or paraphrase (use words or ideas) from another source, published or unpublished.
  • For a direct quote, include a page number, or (if there aren’t page numbers) a paragraph number with the ¶ symbol. Example: (Myers, 2002, ¶ 3).
  • When paraphrasing, give the author’s last name and the source year in parentheses. Example: (Myers, 2002).
  • All references must clearly point to a specific source identified in your References page.
  • When there is no date available for a reference put n.d. in place of the year. Example: (Myers, n.d., p. 10). 

One author, paraphrased:

Preliminary research shows that if a thousand monkeys type at a thousand typewriters, one of them really will write the great American novel (Smith, 2000, p. 276).

OR

In his research, Smith (2000) showed that a thousand monkeys…. 

OR

According to Smith and Jones (2002), “a thousand monkeys will never replace one good writer” (p. 276).

No author: Use a shortened title. Example: (“Monkeys Write,” 2001)

Reference List

  • The References page is a list of the works you used to write your paper.
  • Double-space the entire page.
  •  Alphabetize entries by the author’s last name. If no author, alphabetize by title.
  • The first line of each entry should be flush with the left margin. Subsequent lines are indented one-half inch (a single tab). In Microsoft Word 2007, highlight the reference list. In the Paragraph box of the Home tab, click the arrow icon in the bottom right corner. Under Indentation/Special, Choose Hanging. 

Formatting a Paper

  • Use 12 point Times New Roman throughout the text. 
  • For tables and figures, use a sans serif font such as Arial.
  • All margins are one inch.
  • Double-space the entire paper.

Title page

  • Include the title, your name, and the name of the school. (Some professors prefer the name of the class instead.) 
  • The title elements are centered in the middle of the page.
  • Capitalize the first letter of each important word in the title.
  • Do NOT underline or italicize the title.
  • Do NOT put the title in quotation marks or use a different size font.
  • The Running Head is usually included only for publication. (Some professors require it for academic papers also.)

Page numbers 

  • Paginate ½ inch from the top of the page, flush right.
  • Create a header with a short title, five spaces, and the page number.
  • The title page is page one. 

DOI Numbers

Some citations may require using a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) number. Check with your professor about their preference. This can usually be found on the print copy or in the database record. Not all articles have a DOI number.