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Citation Tools: Audio & Visual Material

Online Video (APA)

Online Video (APA)

*note: each line after the first line should be indented

Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video]. URL

Example:

Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guRoWTYfxMs

*Use the account that posted it as the author if someone else isn't listed.

Images from the Internet (APA)

Images from the Internet (APA)

*note: each line after the first line should be indented

Artist, A. (year). Title of photograph [format]. URL

Example:

Nygaard, Stig. (2012). Prepare... [Photograph]. https://www.flickr.com/photos/stignygaard/6934887276

Podcasts (APA)

Podcasts (APA)

*note: each line after the first line should be indented

Author, A. A. (role in production). (year, date of posting). Title of podcast [Format]. URL.

Example:

York, J. (Producer). (2015, May 12). Radiolab live: Tell-tale hearts featuring Oliver Sacks [Audio podcast] http://www.radiolab.org/story/radiolab-live-telltale-hearts-featuring-oliver-sacks/

*If the podcast is only available by app, omit the URL.

Films (APA)

Movie or Film (APA)

*note: each line after the first line should be indented

Director, A. A. (Director). (Year). Title of film [Film]. Studio/Production Company.

Example:

Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo's nest [Film]. United Artist.

TV Series (APA)

TV Series (APA)

*note: each line after the first line should be indented

Whole Series:

Executive Producer, A. A., Executive Producer, B. B., & Executive Producer, C. C. (Executive Producers). (Year-Year). Title of series [TV series]. Studio/Production Companies.

Simon, D., Colesberry, R. F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown Deadline Productions; HBO.

*If the show is still airing, replace the second year with the word "present." (2017-present). Separate studios with a semi-colon.

TV Series episode:

Writer, A. A. (Writer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season #, Episode #) [TV series episode]. In  A. A. Executive ProducerB. B. Executive Producer, & C. C Executive Producer. (Executive Producers), Title of series. Studio/Production Companies.

Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish. Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios.

*Separate studios with a semi-colon.

Music Recordings (APA)

Songs (APA)

*note: each line after the first line should be indented

Recording Artist, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Song]. On Title of album. Label. 

Example:

Beyoncé. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood; Columbia.

*If the song has no associated album, omit that part of the reference. Add a URL at the end if that is the only way to find the song.