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Citation Tools: Audio & Visual Materials


Elements of the citation

  1. Name of the composer, writer, performer, etc.
  2. Title of the work, in italics or quotation marks as applicable
  3. Additional contributors, as applicable, date and location of recording, production, or performance
  4. Publisher information (record label or publishing company), including date
  5. Medium/format (MP3, DVD, Blu-Ray)


  1. "Umbrella," featuring Jay-Z, MP3 audio, track 1 on Rihanna, Good Girl Gone Bad, Island Def Jam, 2007.
  2. New York Trumpet Ensemble, with Edward Carroll (trumpet) and Edward Brewer (organ), Art of the Trumpet, recorded at the Madeira Festival, June 1–2, 1981, Vox/Turnabout PVT 7183, 1982, compact disc.
  3. The Fireside Treasury of Folk Songs, vol. 1, orchestra and chorus dir. Mitch Miller, Golden Record A198:17A–B, 1958, 33⅓ rpm.


​Movie and film

  1. American Crime Story: The People v. O. J. Simpson, episode 6, “Marcia, Marcia, Marcia,” directed by Ryan Murphy, written by D. V. DeVincentis, featuring Sterling K. Brown, Kenneth Choi, and Sarah Paulson, aired March 8, 2016, on FX,
  2. “Crop Duster Attack,” North by Northwest, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000), DVD.


​Podcasts, online video, other online multimedia

  1.  A. E. Weed, At the Foot of the Flatiron (American Mutoscope and Biograph Co., 1903), 35 mm film, from Library of Congress, The Life of a City: Early Films of New York, 1898–1906, MPEG video, 2:19 at 15 fps,

  2. “Lang Lang: The Chopin Album,” interview by Jeff Spurgeon, Artists at Google, October 15, 2012, video, 54:47, October 18, 2012, featuring performances of Nocturne in E-flat Major, op. 55, no. 2; Etude in F Minor, op. 25, no. 2; Etude in E Major, op. 10, no. 3; and “Grande valse brillante” in E-flat Major, op. 18,

* Small note regarding podcasts - for media designed for online streaming (Spotify, PodBean, etc.) and not downloaded materials, a file format does not need to be mentioned/cited