Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Chicago/Turabian Citation Style
General Rules (Turabian/Chicago)
- Typically used for physical, natural, and social sciences
- In text citations follow (author name, year of publication) format
- Typically used for the humanities
- Numbered footnotes direct the reader to shortened citations at the bottom of the page
One Author: Last Name, First Name.
Two or three authors: Last Name, First Name and First Name Last Name.
Four or more authors:
- Bibliography: Last Name, First Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, and First Name Last Name.
- In-Text (including Footnotes): (Last Name et al.)
Formatting the Paper
- Double space the entire paper
- Use Times New Roman (or similar, easy to read font)
- Use 12 point font (no smaller than 10 point)
- All margins should be at least one inch
- Page number begins on the first page of text (top right corner)
- Title should be centered, one third of the way down the page
- Name, class information, and date should be several lines below
- Double space the title page
- Titles mentioned in text should follow "headline style" capitalization
- First words of titles, subtitles, and important words should be capitalized
- Books, periodicals, and plays should be italicized
- Articles and chapters should be in quotation marks
- "References" - Author-Date System
- "Bibliography" - Notes-Bibliography System
- There should be two spaces between "References/Bibliography" and the first entry
- There should be one space between each entry
- Always write "and" instead of "&"
- Provide DOI and URL whenever possible
- Write the Publishers name out completely
- Citations should be in alphabetical order
- If there is no identifiable author, start with the Title of the work
- If there is no date on a printed work cited, use "n.d"
Turabian/Chicago Style Guide