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Citation Tools: Turabian/Chicago

General Rules (Turabian/Chicago)


Author-Date System

  • Typically used for physical, natural, and social sciences
  • In text citations follow (author name, year of publication) format

Notes-Bibliography System

  • Typically used for the humanities
  • Numbered footnotes direct the reader to shortened citations at the bottom of the page


One Author: Last Name, First Name.

Two or three authors: Last Name, First Name and First Name Last Name.

Four or more authors: 

  • Bibliography: Last Name, First Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, and First Name Last Name.
  • In-Text (including Footnotes): (Last Name et al.)

Formatting the Paper

  • Double space the entire paper
  • Use Times New Roman (or similar, easy to read font)
  • Use 12 point font (no smaller than 10 point)
  • All margins should be at least one inch
  • Page number begins on the first page of text (top right corner)

Title Page

  • Title should be centered, one third of the way down the page
  • Name, class information, and date should be several lines below
  • Double space the title page

Main Body

  • Titles mentioned in text should follow "headline style" capitalization
    • First words of titles, subtitles, and important words should be capitalized
  • Books, periodicals, and plays should be italicized
  • Articles and chapters should be in quotation marks

Works Cited

  • "References" - Author-Date System
  • "Bibliography" - Notes-Bibliography System
  • There should be two spaces between "References/Bibliography" and the first entry
  • There should be one space between each entry
  • Always write "and" instead of "&"
  • Provide DOI and URL whenever possible
  • Write the Publishers name out completely
  • Citations should be in alphabetical order
  • If there is no identifiable author, start with the Title of the work
  • If there is no date on a printed work cited, use "n.d"