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Citation Tools: APA 7 (New)

Citation Tools & Managers

General Rules


One author: Last Name, A.A.

Two authors: Last Name, A.A., & Last Name, B.B.

Three to Twenty authors: Last Name, A.A., Last Name, B.B., Last Name, C.C., Last Name, D.D., Last Name, E.E., 

Twenty one or more authors: list first 19 authors, add a three dot ellipse, then the last author

A group or corporate author: Spell the name out.

In Text Citations

In-text citations for direct quotes require citing a specific part of a source. This typically includes page numbers or paragraph numbers, but could include chapters, verses, line, tables, slides, or even the tme stamp for a video. Examples for single and multiple pages and paragraphs are listed below. For more examples, see page. 264 of the Publication Manual

Author Type In-text citation In-text citation (author mentioned in the text)
One author (Luna, 2020, p. 3) Luna (2020) rest of the sentence (p.3).
Two authors (Salas & D'Agostino, 2020, pp. 1-4) Salas & D'Agostino (2020) rest of the sentence (pp. 1-4).
Three or more authors (Martin et al., 2020, p. 2) Martin et al. (2020) rest of the sentence (p. 2)
Group author (with abbreviation)

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2020, paras. 2-3)

*all references after the first

(NIMH, 2020, paras. 2-3)

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020, paras. 2-3)

*all references after the first 

NIMH (2020) rest of the sentence (paras. 2-3).

Group author (without abbreviation) (Stanford University, 2020, p. 1) Stanford University (2020) rest of the sentence (p.1).

Citations with missing elements

Missing element Reference list  *(just  the order of the first elements, format the rest for that source type) In-text citation
Author Title. (Date). Source

(Title, year) 

Date Author. (n.d.). Title. Source.

(Author, n.d.)

Title Author. (Date). [Description of work]. Source. (Author, year)
Author and date Title. (n.d.). Source. (Title, n.d.)

Reference List

  • The References page is a list of the works you used to write your paper.
  • Double-space the entire page.
  •  Alphabetize entries by the author’s last name. If no author, alphabetize by title.
  • The first line of each entry should be flush with the left margin. Subsequent lines are indented one-half inch (a single tab).

APA Guides

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

Major changes from APA 6

  • Only one space after periods.
  • Acceptable font options now include: Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans Unicode 10, Times New Roman 12, and Georgia 11
  • No location/city needed for book or book chapter citations.
  • No running heads for student papers.
  • The first in-text citation for 3 or more authors no longer includes all the authors, just the first and et al.
  • Write out all authors for a citation if 20 or less authors on a single citation. Shorten citation only with 21 authors or more.